• Overview
  • 100,000 Genomes Project
  • Research studies & clinical trials
  • Resources for patients
  • How to get involved

Many of the differences in our DNA – known as variants – have no impact, but there are some that can affect our health. Variants may cause a genetic condition, such as sickle cell anaemia, or could influence our predisposition to develop a condition, such as breast cancer.

We can now sequence and analyse genomic information to inform healthcare. A person’s genomic information can sometimes be used to diagnose a condition, predict and prevent disease, and offer personalised treatment.

Most people have heard of genetics in relation to healthcare. Genetics is the study of genes and their roles in inheritance – the way certain traits or conditions are passed down in genes from one generation to the next. In healthcare, genetics has typically focused on variations in a single gene when determining the cause of a health condition.


Genomics is an all-encompassing term that takes into account all the DNA in a person’s or organism’s genome – both the genes that code for proteins and those that do not, the non-coding regions. Genes account for just 1-5% of our complete set of genomic information, our genome. Genomics looks at how genes are expressed and the interplay between different genes.


Genetic testing involves the investigation of a single piece of genetic information for specific bits of DNA that have a known function. Through this, scientists can isolate the underlying causes of the specific genetic variant in question. Genomic testing involves the investigation of larger sections of genetic material and information. It's scope is broader and without a specific target.

Your healthcare professional may order a genomic test for several different reasons:


Diagnostic testing – to confirm a diagnosis of a particular cancer or rare disease

  • when you display relative symptoms – ‘clinical presentation’
  • a yes/no test
  • can be used to confirm an initial diagnosis or alternatively to rule out a possible cause of the symptoms

Clinical predictive testing – to assess your risks of developing a genetic condition and to guide preventative care

  • before you display any symptoms
  • usually when a family member has been diagnosed with a genetic condition
  • for a gene that is associated with a condition that is ‘actionable’ – it can be treated or the risk can be reduced with lifestyle changes and/or regular screening
  • for a condition that is not actionable but is sufficiently severe that you may want to know about it before making major life decision (such as starting a family)

Pharmacogenetic testing – to test how your genome affects your response to medication

  • can include whether a particular medicine will be effective or ineffective, and how likely the medicine is to cause particular side-effects

Tumour testing – to identify gene mutations present in the tumour cells that are either actionable (meaning targeted treatment can be offered), or warrant further study

  • comparing the genomes of a patient’s tumour cells with those of the patient’s healthy cells can also help in identifying genes that are actionable in other ways, e.g. identify new research targets such as genes that are seen to be ‘driving’ cancers to develop and spread

Genomic testing usually requires samples of your blood, saliva or tissue. The DNA is extracted from these samples and sequenced at your local Genomic Laboratory Hub, where specific areas or all of your genome is then analysed.

Depending on what the test is for, results may take days, weeks or sometimes months to be reviewed and finalised and fed back to you. You may also be referred for genetic counselling depending on the results.

A full A-Z Genomics glossary can be found on the Genomics Education website, part of the Genomics Education Programme delivered by Health Education England.

We inherit half of our DNA from our mother and half from our father. There are different ways that genetic conditions can be inherited (passed down) in a family. Sometimes a child only needs to inherit one copy of a gene variant to have a condition or increased risk for a condition. This is known as dominant inheritance. Other conditions such as cystic fibrosis (CF) are recessive. If both parents carry a variant, there is a 25 out of 100 (25%) chance for a child to have CF. There are also other forms of inheritance such as X-linked. Sometimes the genetic variant is new in a child and is not present in either parent.


Genomic tests can help to understand what variants are present, and then the clinical and scientific teams work together to understand what the variant means for a person and their family.

100,000 Genomes Project


Rare Disease patients
and their families recruited
in our region


Cancer patients recruited
in our region


Rare Disease and Cancer results
reported back to clinicians

We are sorry for the significant delay in receiving your 100,000 Genomes Project results. We are aware that many families have waited much longer than the expected 18-24 months to receive results. We are sorry that we have not been able to keep all families up to date with the delay. Every family is important to us and we are working hard to try and get your results to you as quickly as possible. The primary findings have been prioritised to ensure every family receives their main results as soon as possible.


When you donated your samples to the Project they were sent to Genomics England for sequencing and analysis before being returned to us here at the South London GMC for further analysis and reporting. For more information on all the stages that your family’s samples go through from recruitment to report, please visit this link to Genomics England’s ‘results journey’ process:

Participants of the 100,000 Genomes Project are able to track their sample online using the Genomics England “Track My Sample” service. However, please note that once sequencing and the initial analysis at Genomics England has been completed, the results still need to be confirmed back at their GMC and reported to the healthcare professional who referred you to the project. Neither Genomics England nor the hospital where you took part will be able tell you exactly when your results will be back.


Your referring healthcare professional (such as your GP or specialist) will let you know when they have received the report. You will be contacted about your test results just as you would be for any other test results – usually by letter or phone.


If you require any further information or help, please contact the South London GMC project team:


Phone: (+44) 020 7188 1383

A main finding is one relevant to the condition that led someone to join the Project. These findings are changes, or variants, in a person’s genomic sequence. The changes could be relevant to the

  • explanation
  • diagnosis or
  • treatment of a person’s rare disease or cancer.

Main findings can also be called ‘pertinent’ or primary findings. Any main findings will be fed back to the NHS clinical team to confirm the result. The referring health professional will then give the results to the participant.


According to Genomics England, an estimated quarter of participants with a rare disease could receive a diagnosis in their results, and approximately half of participants with cancer are projected to receive information that could open up possibilities for clinical trials or targeted therapies.


This also means for many participants, no clear answer will be found at first. Your clinical team will tell you if nothing has been found. This is just the initial analysis though. Your data will also go into a research database. As our knowledge grows, researchers will continue to analyse your data. We will let your clinical team know if we find anything in the future that could be important for your, or your family’s, health.



Further information for 100,000 Genomes Participants can be found on the Genomics England website where they have a dedicated section on the project, including FAQs and information about participant data.

Participants can decide if we should look for ‘additional findings’ in their genome. These are not related to the cancer or rare disease that led them to take part. We only look for these changes if a participant wants us to.


These are genomic changes that are known to cause serious, life threatening conditions. The changes we look for are in certain genes, and they may cause an increased risk of certain genetic diseases. These diseases can often can be prevented or reduced by NHS treatment. These conditions are quite rare. We expect that about 1 in 100 people who take part will have one of these conditions.


Additional findings will be returned later, separately to any findings related to a participant’s main condition. Participants who decide to receive additional findings may get results several years later, as new genomic changes get added to the list.


Participants can change their mind about whether they want to receive these additional findings at any time. Participants can contact their referring clinical team or the GMC that they were recruited, at any time to either opt in or opt out to receive additional findings. Forms can be found in our Patient Resources.


The list of additional findings we look for will change over time. This is because new evidence becomes available about the role of the genes in disease. We only feedback information where there is strong scientific evidence that the changes can cause a disease.

Any participant who was initially consented to the project below the age of 16, will be contacted once they turn 16 to confirm whether they would like to remain in the project or not. If the patient would like to continue on the project as an adult, a consent conversation would need to take place again to sign a new consent form. This can be done either by telephone or via a clinic appointment.


Any participants that do not have capacity to sign for themselves, a consultee/parent will be able to make this decision and sign the form on their behalf.

Research studies and trials

Why is research important?

Public participation in research helps provide valuable knowledge to support people live healthier and better lives now and in the future. Through medical research we can:

  • diagnose diseases earlier or more accurately
  • provide life-changing treatments
  • prevent people from developing conditions
  • improve health and care for generations to come
  • ensure everyone has a better quality of life

Every minute in the UK, someone is diagnosed with a disease or a condition. The treatment and support they will receive will, at some point, have been informed by research. 

Why should I get involved?

You might want to get involved in research to:

  • learn more about a condition that affects you
  • make a difference, by helping to improve treatments and quality of life, now and for future generations
  • support medical research for a particular condition or disease that you care about
  • access new treatments
  • take an active role in your own care.

Current open studies and trials

South East GLH staff across the region support and lead on research in a diverse range of clinical areas, taking the best new ideas from cutting-edge science to create new tests and treatments that benefit patients. You can find out more about current research we are involved in by following the links below:

Research FAQs

Depending on the study you join, your level of involvement could be quite different. It could be as simple as donating a small blood sample, answering surveys or it could involve having multiple appointments with clinicians to monitor your progress. Whatever the level of involvement required for the study, this will always be explained to you at the beginning so you know what is expected of you before deciding if you want to take part.

Anyone who is interested can take part in research. Each study will have its own inclusion and exclusion criteria so some studies are only open to people with specific conditions. However some studies will be looking for “healthy volunteers” to be used as a comparison to patients with a condition. Look at the eligibility criteria for studies you are interested in or speak to the clinical research team to see if you meet the requirements to participate

Before a study can start recruitment, it is reviewed by the Health Research Authority (HRA) and an independent research ethics committee to make sure it is safe, ethical and of high quality. All research studies are voluntary so you don’t have to take part if you don’t want to and you also have the option to withdraw from a study at any time without it affecting your care. If you have any concerns about joining a study you can speak to the research team or the person responsible for your recruitment and they will be able to answer any questions you have.

No, you will usually be given time to decide whether you want to take part. You will be provided with information about the study which you can take away with you to look at in more detail and discuss with your friends, family and doctor.

Informed consent means you have been given complete information about the study, including the risks and benefits, before deciding if you want to take part. You will need to sign a consent form when you join a study agreeing that this information was given to you and that you understood it.

In most cases research studies are voluntary. You may be reimbursed for things such as travel expenses and the research team will be able to explain to you in more detail about the availability of this.

Further resources

Websites that may be helpful in making informed choices about taking part in research and highlight other trials that you may be interested in:

The UK Clinical Trials Gateway

The South London Clinical Research Network
NIHR National Bioresource
The National BioResource

Resources for patients

When your clinician discusses genomic testing as part of your care, you will also be asked if you want to donate your sample, genome sequence and health data for research. If you agree to take part, your samples will be stored securely and your data will be added to the National Genomic Research Library – a secure national database of de-identified genomic and health data managed by Genomics EnglandApproved researchers can use the samples and data to study diseases and look for new treatments. Their research might help you and others now or in the future.

Other websites that may be informative:

100,000 Genomes Project

How can you get involved?

Why should you get involved?

If you live in South London, Kent, Surrey or Sussex you are one of our patients. Even if you don’t currently use our services, you or your family may need to in the future. By getting involved you can tell us what you think of the services we provide and use your experience and skills to help us improve what we are doing.

Why is Patient and Public Engagement important to us?

We care about the communities we serve and want to be providing the best services we can, meeting everyone’s needs. To ensure that we are able to do this, and to make sure the patient perspective is always at the centre of what we do, we are committed to involving patients and the public at every step. We have set up a number of ways for members of the public to be involved and to have a say in the implementation of our services.

There are several ways that patients, family members and the public can get involved with the South East Genomic service. These include:
Patient ambassadors

Who are Genomic Patient Ambassadors?

Genomic Patient Ambassadors are volunteers who are enthusiastic about genetics and genomics. They may have previously been involved in the 100,000 Genomes Project, be a previous or current patient, or a carer or member of the public. People from all backgrounds and all abilities are welcome. 

Genomic Patient Ambassadors play a leading role in working with the GLH leads to help ensure patient and public involvement is embedded in the planning and delivery of the new genomic service. 

No previous experience is necessary, we just ask that you are able to commit to a small number of hours per month.

What can Genomic Patient Ambassadors do?

Genomic Patient Ambassadors work together to actively shape their own work and responsibilities so you can decide how best to contribute your skills and experience.

Due to our vase geographical region much of the work will take place online, but provisions will be made for those who are unable (for whatever reason) to use digital means of communication. 

Here are some of the activities Genomic Patient Ambassadors can be involved with:

  • Reviewing patient documents e.g. patient information leaflets, public surveys and the GLH website, to provide feedback and collaborate on plain English summaries

  • Identifying gaps in awareness of genomics and educational needs within the population

  • Join meetings with the team by telephone and video, contributing ideas and experience

  • Planning public engagement events including contributing to the agenda

  • Producing materials to be used for communication with patients and the public via our website and other channels


How can I become a Genomic Patient Ambassador?

If you are interested in becoming a Genomic Patient Ambassador or finding out more information, then please email us or use our contact form.  

In your message, it would be great if you could briefly outline why you are interested in this role. Don’t forget to include your name and contact details!

With any Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) test ordered, a Record of Discussion (RoD) form will also need to be submitted. This document is to record the patient’s consent for genomic testing and their choice on taking part in research. Guidance on the patient choice conversation can be found here
This RoD form will be available for clinicians to download from this webpage. Once completed with the patient, it can be send to the lab with the corresponding test order form and sample.
Tests available to order will be listed in the National Genomic Test Directory. A test order form will soon be made available for clinicians on this webpage to download and complete. This form will include the address of the laboratory that the appropriate sample and completed form needs to be sent to.
Until the new Genomic Laboratory Service goes live, please continue to follow existing test order processes.
Later this year, the online test ordering tool for Whole Genome Sequencing will be integrated into the National Genomics Informatics System (NGIS) and clinicians will be able to search or filter to find a clinical indication, confirm eligibility criteria and start the test request process for their patient.